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[.NET/C#]C# Winform/WPF程序中确保一台计算机只能同时运行一个应用程序实例的方法有哪些?

.NET 作者: Rector 811阅读 0评论 0收藏 收藏本文

郑重申明:本文未经许可,禁止任何形式转载

问题描述

如题,当前有一个需求,要求在C# Winform/WPF程序中确保一台计算机只能同时运行一个应用程序实例,即:用户只能在同一台计算机上打开这个应用程序的一个实例(应用进程),如果再次打开一个应用进程,则提示应用程序已经在运行中了。

方案一

WINFORM应用程序中
程序入口文件:

static class Program
{
    static Mutex mutex = new Mutex(true, "{8F6F0AC4-B9A1-45fd-A8CF-72F04E6BDE8F}");
    [STAThread]
    static void Main() {
        if(mutex.WaitOne(TimeSpan.Zero, true)) {
            Application.EnableVisualStyles();
            Application.SetCompatibleTextRenderingDefault(false);
            Application.Run(new Form1());
            mutex.ReleaseMutex();
        } else {
            // send our Win32 message to make the currently running instance
            // jump on top of all the other windows
            NativeMethods.PostMessage(
                (IntPtr)NativeMethods.HWND_BROADCAST,
                NativeMethods.WM_SHOWME,
                IntPtr.Zero,
                IntPtr.Zero);
        }
    }
}

本地方法:

internal class NativeMethods
{
    public const int HWND_BROADCAST = 0xffff;
    public static readonly int WM_SHOWME = RegisterWindowMessage("WM_SHOWME");
    [DllImport("user32")]
    public static extern bool PostMessage(IntPtr hwnd, int msg, IntPtr wparam, IntPtr lparam);
    [DllImport("user32")]
    public static extern int RegisterWindowMessage(string message);
}

主窗体的实现代码:

public partial class Form1 : Form
{
    public Form1()
    {
        InitializeComponent();
    }
    protected override void WndProc(ref Message m)
    {
        if(m.Msg == NativeMethods.WM_SHOWME) {
            ShowMe();
        }
        base.WndProc(ref m);
    }
    private void ShowMe()
    {
        if(WindowState == FormWindowState.Minimized) {
            WindowState = FormWindowState.Normal;
        }
        // get our current "TopMost" value (ours will always be false though)
        bool top = TopMost;
        // make our form jump to the top of everything
        TopMost = true;
        // set it back to whatever it was
        TopMost = top;
    }
}

方案二

WPF应用程序中
首先,创建一个应用程序,继承自System.Windows.Application,重写OnStartup方法,并且再创建一个名为Activate()的方法,后面将会用到这个方法:

SingleInstanceApplication.cs

public class SingleInstanceApplication : System.Windows.Application
{
    protected override void OnStartup(System.Windows.StartupEventArgs e)
    {
        // Call the OnStartup event on our base class
        base.OnStartup(e);

        // Create our MainWindow and show it
        MainWindow window = new MainWindow();
        window.Show();
    }

    public void Activate()
    {
        // Reactivate the main window
        MainWindow.Activate();
    }
}

接着,我们需要创建一个类来管理我们的应用程序的实例,这个类命名为:SingleInstanceManager,在开始这步之前,我们需要使用到VB.NET的一个程序集Microsoft.VisualBasic,请将这个程序集引入到项目中,SingleInstanceManager类的实现代码如下:

SingleInstanceManager.cs

public class SingleInstanceManager : Microsoft.VisualBasic.ApplicationServices.WindowsFormsApplicationBase
{
    private SingleInstanceApplication _application;
    private System.Collections.ObjectModel.ReadOnlyCollection<string> _commandLine;

    public SingleInstanceManager()
    {
        IsSingleInstance = true;
    }

    protected override bool OnStartup(Microsoft.VisualBasic.ApplicationServices.StartupEventArgs eventArgs)
    {
        //_application 程序第一次被加载
        _commandLine = eventArgs.CommandLine;
        _application = new SingleInstanceApplication();
        _application.Run();
        return false;
    }

    protected override void OnStartupNextInstance(StartupNextInstanceEventArgs eventArgs)
    {
        //程序之后的加载过程
        base.OnStartupNextInstance(eventArgs);
        _commandLine = eventArgs.CommandLine;
        _application.Activate();
    }
}

应用程序的入口文件来调用实例管理类:

public class EntryPoint
{
    [STAThread]
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        SingleInstanceManager manager = new SingleInstanceManager();
        manager.Run(args);
    }
}

方案三

创建一个专门的工具类,文件代码如下:

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Threading;

namespace SingleInstanceUtilities
{
    public sealed class SingleInstance
    {
        private const int HWND_BROADCAST = 0xFFFF;

        [DllImport("user32.dll")]
        private static extern bool PostMessage(IntPtr hwnd, int msg, IntPtr wparam, IntPtr lparam);

        [DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        private static extern int RegisterWindowMessage(string message);

        [DllImport("user32.dll")]
        private static extern bool SetForegroundWindow(IntPtr hWnd);

        public SingleInstance(string uniqueName)
        {
            if (uniqueName == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("uniqueName");

            Mutex = new Mutex(true, uniqueName);
            Message = RegisterWindowMessage("WM_" + uniqueName);
        }

        public Mutex Mutex { get; private set; }
        public int Message { get; private set; }

        public void RunFirstInstance(Action action)
        {
            RunFirstInstance(action, IntPtr.Zero, IntPtr.Zero);
        }

        // NOTE: if this always return false, close & restart Visual Studio
        // this is probably due to the vshost.exe thing
        public void RunFirstInstance(Action action, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam)
        {
            if (action == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("action");

            if (WaitForMutext(wParam, lParam))
            {
                try
                {
                    action();
                }
                finally
                {
                    ReleaseMutex();
                }
            }
        }

        public static void ActivateWindow(IntPtr hwnd)
        {
            if (hwnd == IntPtr.Zero)
                return;

            FormUtilities.ActivateWindow(FormUtilities.GetModalWindow(hwnd));
        }

        public void OnWndProc(IntPtr hwnd, int m, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, bool restorePlacement, bool activate)
        {
            if (m == Message)
            {
                if (restorePlacement)
                {
                    WindowPlacement placement = WindowPlacement.GetPlacement(hwnd, false);
                    if (placement.IsValid && placement.IsMinimized)
                    {
                        const int SW_SHOWNORMAL = 1;
                        placement.ShowCmd = SW_SHOWNORMAL;
                        placement.SetPlacement(hwnd);
                    }
                }

                if (activate)
                {
                    SetForegroundWindow(hwnd);
                    FormUtilities.ActivateWindow(FormUtilities.GetModalWindow(hwnd));
                }
            }
        }

#if WINFORMS // define this for Winforms apps
        public void OnWndProc(System.Windows.Forms.Form form, int m, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, bool activate)
        {
            if (form == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("form");

            if (m == Message)
            {
                if (activate)
                {
                    if (form.WindowState == System.Windows.Forms.FormWindowState.Minimized)
                    {
                        form.WindowState = System.Windows.Forms.FormWindowState.Normal;
                    }

                    form.Activate();
                    FormUtilities.ActivateWindow(FormUtilities.GetModalWindow(form.Handle));
                }
            }
        }

        public void OnWndProc(System.Windows.Forms.Form form, System.Windows.Forms.Message m, bool activate)
        {
            if (form == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("form");

            OnWndProc(form, m.Msg, m.WParam, m.LParam, activate);
        }
#endif

        public void ReleaseMutex()
        {
            Mutex.ReleaseMutex();
        }

        public bool WaitForMutext(bool force, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam)
        {
            bool b = PrivateWaitForMutext(force);
            if (!b)
            {
                PostMessage((IntPtr)HWND_BROADCAST, Message, wParam, lParam);
            }
            return b;
        }

        public bool WaitForMutext(IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam)
        {
            return WaitForMutext(false, wParam, lParam);
        }

        private bool PrivateWaitForMutext(bool force)
        {
            if (force)
                return true;

            try
            {
                return Mutex.WaitOne(TimeSpan.Zero, true);
            }
            catch (AbandonedMutexException)
            {
                return true;
            }
        }
    }

    // NOTE: don't add any field or public get/set property, as this must exactly map to Windows' WINDOWPLACEMENT structure
    [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
    public struct WindowPlacement
    {
        public int Length { get; set; }
        public int Flags { get; set; }
        public int ShowCmd { get; set; }
        public int MinPositionX { get; set; }
        public int MinPositionY { get; set; }
        public int MaxPositionX { get; set; }
        public int MaxPositionY { get; set; }
        public int NormalPositionLeft { get; set; }
        public int NormalPositionTop { get; set; }
        public int NormalPositionRight { get; set; }
        public int NormalPositionBottom { get; set; }

        [DllImport("user32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern bool SetWindowPlacement(IntPtr hWnd, ref WindowPlacement lpwndpl);

        [DllImport("user32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern bool GetWindowPlacement(IntPtr hWnd, ref WindowPlacement lpwndpl);

        private const int SW_SHOWMINIMIZED = 2;

        public bool IsMinimized
        {
            get
            {
                return ShowCmd == SW_SHOWMINIMIZED;
            }
        }

        public bool IsValid
        {
            get
            {
                return Length == Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(WindowPlacement));
            }
        }

        public void SetPlacement(IntPtr windowHandle)
        {
            SetWindowPlacement(windowHandle, ref this);
        }

        public static WindowPlacement GetPlacement(IntPtr windowHandle, bool throwOnError)
        {
            WindowPlacement placement = new WindowPlacement();
            if (windowHandle == IntPtr.Zero)
                return placement;

            placement.Length = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(WindowPlacement));
            if (!GetWindowPlacement(windowHandle, ref placement))
            {
                if (throwOnError)
                    throw new Win32Exception(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());

                return new WindowPlacement();
            }
            return placement;
        }
    }

    public static class FormUtilities
    {
        [DllImport("user32.dll")]
        private static extern IntPtr GetWindow(IntPtr hWnd, int uCmd);

        [DllImport("user32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern IntPtr SetActiveWindow(IntPtr hWnd);

        [DllImport("user32.dll")]
        private static extern bool IsWindowVisible(IntPtr hWnd);

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll")]
        public static extern int GetCurrentThreadId();

        private delegate bool EnumChildrenCallback(IntPtr hwnd, IntPtr lParam);

        [DllImport("user32.dll")]
        private static extern bool EnumThreadWindows(int dwThreadId, EnumChildrenCallback lpEnumFunc, IntPtr lParam);

        private class ModalWindowUtil
        {
            private const int GW_OWNER = 4;
            private int _maxOwnershipLevel;
            private IntPtr _maxOwnershipHandle;

            private bool EnumChildren(IntPtr hwnd, IntPtr lParam)
            {
                int level = 1;
                if (IsWindowVisible(hwnd) && IsOwned(lParam, hwnd, ref level))
                {
                    if (level > _maxOwnershipLevel)
                    {
                        _maxOwnershipHandle = hwnd;
                        _maxOwnershipLevel = level;
                    }
                }
                return true;
            }

            private static bool IsOwned(IntPtr owner, IntPtr hwnd, ref int level)
            {
                IntPtr o = GetWindow(hwnd, GW_OWNER);
                if (o == IntPtr.Zero)
                    return false;

                if (o == owner)
                    return true;

                level++;
                return IsOwned(owner, o, ref level);
            }

            public static void ActivateWindow(IntPtr hwnd)
            {
                if (hwnd != IntPtr.Zero)
                {
                    SetActiveWindow(hwnd);
                }
            }

            public static IntPtr GetModalWindow(IntPtr owner)
            {
                ModalWindowUtil util = new ModalWindowUtil();
                EnumThreadWindows(GetCurrentThreadId(), util.EnumChildren, owner);
                return util._maxOwnershipHandle; // may be IntPtr.Zero
            }
        }

        public static void ActivateWindow(IntPtr hwnd)
        {
            ModalWindowUtil.ActivateWindow(hwnd);
        }

        public static IntPtr GetModalWindow(IntPtr owner)
        {
            return ModalWindowUtil.GetModalWindow(owner);
        }
    }
}

Winform应用程序:

static class Program
{
    public static readonly SingleInstance Singleton = new SingleInstance(typeof(Program).FullName);

    [STAThread]
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        // NOTE: if this always return false, close & restart Visual Studio
        // this is probably due to the vshost.exe thing
        Singleton.RunFirstInstance(() =>
        {
            SingleInstanceMain(args);
        });
    }

    public static void SingleInstanceMain(string[] args)
    {
        // standard code that was in Main now goes here
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.SetCompatibleTextRenderingDefault(false);
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }
}

修改主窗体的代码如下:

public partial class Form1 : Form
{
    public Form1()
    {
        InitializeComponent();
    }

    protected override void WndProc(ref Message m)
    {
        Program.Singleton.OnWndProc(this, m, true);
        base.WndProc(ref m);
    }
}

WPF应用程序:
程序入口文件代码:

public partial class App : Application
{
    public static readonly SingleInstance Singleton = new SingleInstance(typeof(App).FullName);

    [STAThread]
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        // NOTE: if this always return false, close & restart Visual Studio
        // this is probably due to the vshost.exe thing
        Singleton.RunFirstInstance(() =>
        {
            SingleInstanceMain(args);
        });
    }

    public static void SingleInstanceMain(string[] args)
    {
        // standard code that was in Main now goes here
        App app = new App();
        app.InitializeComponent();
        app.Run();
    }
}

修改主窗体代码如下:

public partial class MainWindow : Window
{
    private HwndSource _source;

    public MainWindow()
    {
        InitializeComponent();
    }

    protected override void OnSourceInitialized(EventArgs e)
    {
        base.OnSourceInitialized(e);
        _source = (HwndSource)PresentationSource.FromVisual(this);
        _source.AddHook(HwndSourceHook);
    }

    protected virtual IntPtr HwndSourceHook(IntPtr hwnd, int msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, ref bool handled)
    {
        // if needed, the singleton will restore this window
        App.Singleton.OnWndProc(hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam, true, true);

        // TODO: handle other specific message
        return IntPtr.Zero;
    }

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发布于: 2018-01-27 10:07:10
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