[.NET/C#].NET中生成数字字母的随机字符串有哪些实现方式呢?

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问题描述

如题,在.NET/C#的程序开发,很多时候我需要生成随机的字符串,可能是纯数字的,纯字母的,数字字母组合,还有可能包含其他字符的,甚至需要指定随机字符串的长度等等。
面对这些关于随机数或者随机字符串的生成需求,在.NET/C#的程序开发中,你想到有哪些实现方式呢?
今天本文就为大家分享一些在.NET/C#开发中生成随机字符串的各种方案。

方案一

使用LINQ以及Enumerable.Repeat()方法:

private static Random random = new Random();
public static string RandomString(int length)
{
    const string chars = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789";
    return new string(Enumerable.Repeat(chars, length)
      .Select(s => s[random.Next(s.Length)]).ToArray());
}

方案二

虽然没有LINQ简洁,但功能实现上来说是没有问题的:

var chars = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789";
var stringChars = new char[8];
var random = new Random();

for (int i = 0; i < stringChars.Length; i++)
{
    stringChars[i] = chars[random.Next(chars.Length)];
}

var finalString = new String(stringChars);

方案三

使用RNGCryptoServiceProvider实例对象的GetNonZeroBytes()方法:

using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;

namespace UniqueKey
{
    public class KeyGenerator
    {
        public static string GetUniqueKey(int maxSize)
        {
            char[] chars = new char[62];
            chars =
            "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890".ToCharArray();
            byte[] data = new byte[1];
            using (RNGCryptoServiceProvider crypto = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider())
            {
                crypto.GetNonZeroBytes(data);
                data = new byte[maxSize];
                crypto.GetNonZeroBytes(data);
            }
            StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(maxSize);
            foreach (byte b in data)
            {
                result.Append(chars[b % (chars.Length)]);
            }
            return result.ToString();
        }
    }
}

方案四

使用Guid

Guid.NewGuid().ToString().Replace("-", string.Empty).Substring(0, 8);

方案五

使用Path.GetRandomFileName(),但此方法最多生成

public string Get8CharacterRandomString()
{
    string path = Path.GetRandomFileName();
    path = path.Replace(".", ""); // Remove period.
    return path.Substring(0, 8);  // Return 8 character string
}

注:Path.GetRandomFileName() 只能生成最多11位的随机字符串,所以超过11位的随机字符串,此方案将不可用

方案六

using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;

public static string GetRandomAlphanumericString(int length)
{
    const string alphanumericCharacters =
        "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" +
        "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" +
        "0123456789";
    return GetRandomString(length, alphanumericCharacters);
}

public static string GetRandomString(int length, IEnumerable<char> characterSet)
{
    if (length < 0)
        throw new ArgumentException("length must not be negative", "length");
    if (length > int.MaxValue / 8) // 250 million chars ought to be enough for anybody
        throw new ArgumentException("length is too big", "length");
    if (characterSet == null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("characterSet");
    var characterArray = characterSet.Distinct().ToArray();
    if (characterArray.Length == 0)
        throw new ArgumentException("characterSet must not be empty", "characterSet");

    var bytes = new byte[length * 8];
    new RNGCryptoServiceProvider().GetBytes(bytes);
    var result = new char[length];
    for (int i = 0; i < length; i++)
    {
        ulong value = BitConverter.ToUInt64(bytes, i * 8);
        result[i] = characterArray[value % (uint)characterArray.Length];
    }
    return new string(result);
}

方案七

public static string GetUniqueKey(int size = 6, string chars = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890")
{
    using (var crypto = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider())
    {
        var data = new byte[size];

        // If chars.Length isn't a power of 2 then there is a bias if
        // we simply use the modulus operator. The first characters of
        // chars will be more probable than the last ones.

        // buffer used if we encounter an unusable random byte. We will
        // regenerate it in this buffer
        byte[] smallBuffer = null;

        // Maximum random number that can be used without introducing a
        // bias
        int maxRandom = byte.MaxValue - ((byte.MaxValue + 1) % chars.Length);

        crypto.GetBytes(data);

        var result = new char[size];

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
        {
            byte v = data[i];

            while (v > maxRandom)
            {
                if (smallBuffer == null)
                {
                    smallBuffer = new byte[1];
                }

                crypto.GetBytes(smallBuffer);
                v = smallBuffer[0];
            }

            result[i] = chars[v % chars.Length];
        }

        return new string(result);
    }
}

方案八

var chars = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789".ToArray();
string pw = Enumerable.Range(0, passwordLength)
                      .Aggregate(
                          new StringBuilder(),
                          (sb, n) => sb.Append((chars[random.Next(chars.Length)])),
                          sb => sb.ToString());

方案九

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

public class Test
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        var randomCharacters = GetRandomCharacters(8, true);
        Console.WriteLine(new string(randomCharacters.ToArray()));
    }

    private static List<char> getAvailableRandomCharacters(bool includeLowerCase)
    {
        var integers = Enumerable.Empty<int>();
        integers = integers.Concat(Enumerable.Range('A', 26));
        integers = integers.Concat(Enumerable.Range('0', 10));

        if ( includeLowerCase )
            integers = integers.Concat(Enumerable.Range('a', 26));

        return integers.Select(i => (char)i).ToList();
    }

    public static IEnumerable<char> GetRandomCharacters(int count, bool includeLowerCase)
    {
        var characters = getAvailableRandomCharacters(includeLowerCase);
        var random = new Random();
        var result = Enumerable.Range(0, count)
            .Select(_ => characters[random.Next(characters.Count)]);

        return result;
    }
}

方案十

void Main()
{
    Random rnd = new Random();
    rnd.GetString("1-###-000").Dump();
}

public static class RandomExtensions
{
    public static string GetString(this Random random, string format)
    {
        // Based on http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1344221/how-can-i-generate-random-alphanumeric-strings-in-c
        // Added logic to specify the format of the random string (# will be random string, 0 will be random numeric, other characters remain)
        StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
        for(int formatIndex = 0; formatIndex < format.Length ; formatIndex++)
        {
            switch(format.ToUpper()[formatIndex])
            {
                case '0': result.Append(getRandomNumeric(random)); break;
                case '#': result.Append(getRandomCharacter(random)); break;
                default : result.Append(format[formatIndex]); break;
            }
        }
        return result.ToString();
    }

    private static char getRandomCharacter(Random random)
    {
        string chars = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
        return chars[random.Next(chars.Length)];
    }

    private static char getRandomNumeric(Random random)
    {
        string nums = "0123456789";
        return nums[random.Next(nums.Length)];
    }
}

方案十一

public class RandomStringGenerator
{
    public static string Gen()
    {
        return ConvertToBase(DateTime.UtcNow.ToFileTimeUtc()) + GenRandomStrings(5); //keep length fixed at least of one part
    }

    private static string GenRandomStrings(int strLen)
    {
        var result = string.Empty;

        var Gen = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider();
        var data = new byte[1];

        while (result.Length < strLen)
        {
            Gen.GetNonZeroBytes(data);
            int code = data[0];
            if (code > 48 && code < 57 || // 0-9
                code > 65 && code < 90 || // A-Z
                code > 97 && code < 122   // a-z
                )
            {
                result += Convert.ToChar(code);
            }
        }

        return result;
    }

    private static string ConvertToBase(long num, int nbase = 36)
    {
        var chars = "0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"; //if you wish make algoritm more secure - change order of letter here

        // check if we can convert to another base
        if (nbase < 2 || nbase > chars.Length)
            return null;

        int r;
        var newNumber = string.Empty;

        // in r we have the offset of the char that was converted to the new base
        while (num >= nbase)
        {
            r = (int) (num % nbase);
            newNumber = chars[r] + newNumber;
            num = num / nbase;
        }
        // the last number to convert
        newNumber = chars[(int)num] + newNumber;

        return newNumber;
    }
}

方案十二

var chars = Enumerable.Repeat("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789", 8);

var randomStr = new string(chars.SelectMany(str => str)
                                .OrderBy(c => Guid.NewGuid())
                                .Take(8).ToArray());

方案十三

public static string RandomName
    {
        get
        {
            return new string(
                Enumerable.Repeat("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ", 13)
                    .Select(s =>
                    {
                        var cryptoResult = new byte[4];
                        new RNGCryptoServiceProvider().GetBytes(cryptoResult);
                        return s[new Random(BitConverter.ToInt32(cryptoResult, 0)).Next(s.Length)];
                    })
                    .ToArray());
        }
    }

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发布于: 2018-01-29 14:20:06
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